Egypt and Saudi Arabia are the only two of the Middle East’s 27 Muslim-majority countries to have more people working than in the rest of the world, according to a new report from the World Bank.
This has implications for economic development, as the two countries account for around 40 per cent of the globe’s population and account for one of the most populous regions in the world.
But it is the United Arab Emirates that is emerging as the most innovative country for labour in terms of growth, said the report, released on Wednesday.
It said the country has seen its population increase by 3.7 per cent, and has also created a number of new jobs.
The report, which looks at labour markets in the Middle Eastern countries, says that the region’s labour market has become more flexible in recent years, as workers have moved to jobs with better opportunities and wages, such as service industries, healthcare and manufacturing.
The number of people in employment in Egypt rose by 3 per cent from 1.5 million in 2015 to 2.5m in 2016, while the UAE gained 3 per 100 people from 1m in 2015, to 2m in the first quarter of this year.
Egypt’s labour force has increased by a third since 2010, while labour in Saudi Arabia has increased sevenfold.
The UAE’s population has increased from 3.6m in 2010 to 4.3m in 2020, while Egypt’s has risen by 10 per cent.
The growth in both countries has coincided with an increase in unemployment.
Egypt has experienced a high rate of unemployment since 2011, but the unemployment rate has fallen from 8.1 per cent in 2010, to 4 per cent today.
The unemployment rate in Saudi is 5.4 per cent while it is 6.3 per cent for Egypt, the report said.
Egypt is the only country in the region where unemployment is higher than 15 per cent; unemployment in the UAE is 9 per cent and in the US it is 11.7.
According to the report’s authors, the UAE’s labour growth in recent decades has coincided almost entirely with the economic growth of the country, which has also led to an increase of the number of workers.
“The UAE has seen a high degree of economic growth and high levels of productivity, which have benefited from the presence of skilled labour,” said one of its authors, Rohan Lal, from the University of Chicago.
“This growth has been driven by both the emergence of the state sector as the primary employer and the emergence and consolidation of a high-skilled, high-paying, and relatively flexible labour force,” he added.
The US has a high level of unemployment, but has also seen an increase from the 1990s, when about 7 per cent unemployed workers were in the labour force.
The Middle East is a region that has experienced many changes over the past decade, with Egypt being one of them.
The region has experienced economic turmoil and has seen some of the biggest upheavals of the 20th century.
But this is not the first time that Egypt has seen large changes in its labour market.
In 2010, the country experienced an economic downturn with the start of the Arab Spring, as Egyptians took to the streets to protest against corruption and inequality.
The Arab Spring had its impact on the labour market in Egypt, which saw a huge rise in unemployment, which reached 11 per cent by 2020.
In 2015, the region witnessed a major economic crisis with the fall of the Mubarak regime and the Arab uprisings.
As a result, many people fled their homes and started working abroad, especially in Saudi, the most lucrative of the region, according the report.
“In 2015 and 2016, the economic downturn in Egypt has led to a massive migration of labour from the labour markets of the GCC and the Gulf countries to Egypt,” it said.
“According to our data, over 90 per cent (of the workers) who have left the country since the Arab spring began have returned home, most of them having received financial aid from the Gulf states.”
According to a 2016 report from World Bank, around 70 per cent people in the GCC countries are now working abroad.
Saudi Arabia has seen an unprecedented growth in the number and size of its working population, which is now estimated at nearly 5 million.
The country’s labour pool has grown from 1 million people in 2010 into 3.2 million people today.
Saudi has experienced the most growth in labour from 2010 to 2020.
In 2016, it had the largest working population in the Arab world.
The World Bank’s report says that Saudi has the highest proportion of migrant workers, at 23 per cent – which is almost five times the rate of other GCC countries.